Glg 101 Week 3 Assignment Earthquakes Usgs

Unformatted text preview: Earthquakes 153 9 Earthquakes Topics A. What is the physical explanation for why earthquakes occur? B. What are the three types of earthquake waves, and how do they differ one from another? How are earthquakes recorded, and how is the distance between a seismograph station and an earthquake determined? C. How is the location of an earthquake determined? D. What are the two common scales of earthquake severity, and how do they differ one from another? Why aren’t fields of Mercalli intensity values bounded by perfect circles? E. How is the Richter magnitude of a distant earthquake determined? How is the moment magnitude of an earthquake measured? Why are there no earthquakes of magnitude 11.0? How does the geology of the Northridge are explain such extreme ground acceleration? F. Why the greater number of fatalities from earthquakes in underdeveloped countries? What is the ShakeMap project? What is the “Did you feel it?” project? G. What is the methodology in determining the location of a quake in southeast Missouri? H. What geologic feature caused the Sumatra tsunami? What geologic feature saved countless lives in Bangladesh? A. What causes earthquakes? Earthquakes are produced by abrupt motion along a fault when friction that resists such motion is overcome by stress (Fig. 9.1). This is called elastic rebound. It’s quite analogous to the bending and breaking of a green twig. Some 21 feet of abrupt adjustment along the San Andreas Fault generated the fateful San Francisco earthquake of 1906. Calif. Sa n An dr ea s fa ul t Most earthquakes are produced by movement along a fault. But movement is not along the entire fault during any one event. Instead, movement involves a region of the fault measured in a few kilometers. The place within that region where movement first occurs is called the focus. But of more interest to people is the spot on the ground directly above the focus, which is called the epicenter. The epicenter equates with the spot where there is maximum ground motion and maximum damage. p! Sna 1875 u Fa lt pl a ne Epicenter 1905 Focus 1906 21 ft offset Figure 9.1 Some 21 feet of plastic strain across the San Andreas fault—exhibited here by distorted utility lines and such—accumulated before the correction of 1906. 154 Earthquakes B. Earthquake waves Good news, bad news Good news—The P and S waves enable geophysicists to chart and decipher Earth’s deep interior. Bad news—The surface wave is the wave that destroys countless lives and untold property. Earthquake waves—aka seismic waves—come in three varieties (Fig. 9.2): 1. the surface wave 2. two penetrating body waves (2a) the P wave (2b) the S wave Energy transmission 1 Surface wave. Rolling of rock particles (arrows) in response to passage of a moving wave. The wave form is much like that of water particles within a wave in that particle motion diminishes downward. 2a Energy transmission Figure 9.2 Three seismic waves consist of one surface wave and two penetrative body waves. Primary or P wave. Motion of rock particles (arrow) is parallel to the direction of energy transmission. The wave form is that of compression and relaxation of rock, a bit like a Slinky™ toy. 2b Energy transmission Secondary or S wave. Motion of rock particles (arrow) is perpendicular to direction of energy transmission. Standing waves result, like the distortion of a trampoline. Earthquakes 155 Recording earthquakes Earthquakes are recorded with instruments called seismographs. A simple seismograph consists of a weakly anchored ink pen scribing a rotating drum that is firmly anchored to the ground (Fig. 9.3). An earthquake that moves the drum has relatively little effect on the pen, so ground motion produces a zigzag line called a seismogram (Fig. 9.4). Q9.1 Judging from the seismogram in Figure 9.4, which wave appears to be the most damaging? This relationship calls to mind the kind of questions that you might have encountered while taking college-entrance exams. For example, two seismology students, in separate vehicles, depart the site of a recent earthquake in southern California—at the same time—and drive to the Cal Tech campus. One drives 50 m.p.h., the other 40 m.p.h. One arrives at 4:00 P.M., the other arrives at 4:30 P.M. Determining distance to an earthquake Speeds at which earthquake waves travel depend on the density and rigidity of rocks along their paths. But, regardless of rock character, the P wave is the swiftest, the S wave is intermediate, and the surface wave is the slowest (Fig. 9.4). Because of this difference in wave velocities, the difference in arrival times of P and S waves differs as a function of the distance between an earthquake and a seismograph station (Fig. 9.5). Q9.2 How many miles was the earthquake from Cal Tech? Hint: see the bottom of Answer Page 169 for partial solution. Suspended ink pen Figure 9.5 is a graph showing the progressive increase in separation between arrival times of P and S waves. An example described in the caption to Figure 9.5 has been plotted. Rotating drum with paper Q9.3 Determine the distance to an Base anchored to bedrock earthquake at a station that receives P and S waves 5.0 minutes apart. Hint: (a) Place tick marks on a scrap of paper equal to 5.0 on the minutes axis. (b) Fit that to the horizontal separation between P and S curves. (c) Read distance directly across on the distance axis. A B Arrival of P wave Arrival of surface wave Arrival of S wave Seismograph paper moving in this direction 06:37:40 06:38:00 06:38:20 Scale in hours : minutes : seconds Figure 9.4 Schematic drawing of a seismogram showing arrivals of the three kinds of seismic waves. The paper was moving from your right to your left, so the earliest part of the record is to the left. The record is graduated in 20-second intervals. 0 Minutes of travel-time from earthquake 5 10 15 20 25 9.5 Distance traveled (in kilometers) from earthquake Figure 9.3 A seismograph is designed so that during an earthquake there is motion between rotating paper and an ink pen. (A) A seismograph before an earthquake. (B) A seismograph during an earthquake. 0 16. 2,000 4,000 6,000 Seismogram 8,000 10,000 P wave S wave Figure 9.5 A difference in arrival times of P and S waves of 7.2 minutes (i.e., 16.7 minus 9.5) indicates the distance to the earthquake of 5,600 kilometers. 156 Earthquakes C. Locating earthquakes Quake to Seattle 725 mi Subject: At midnight on August 17, 1959 an earthquake dislodged a wall of rock in the Madison River Canyon of Montana, burying 28 campers in the valley below. Seattle Methodology for locating that quake Step A: A seismologist at a seismograph station in Seattle, Washington determined the distance to the earthquake, using the difference in arrival times of the P and S waves. Then the seismologist constructed around that station a circle, the radius of which is the distance between the station and the earthquake. Q9.4 At this point, from the information in Figure 9.6A, how specific can you be as concerns the location of that earthquake? A 0 500 Figure 9.6 Three-step procedure for determining the location of an eartquake. Step B: A seismologist at a second seismograph station—Berkeley, California—applied the same procedure as that at Seattle. Seattle B Berkeley Q9.5 At this point, from the infor- Quake to Berkeley 950 mi mation in Figure 9.6B, how specific can you now be as concerns the location of that earthquake? Step C: A seismologist at a third seismograph station—Salt Lake City, Utah—applied the same procedure as that at Seattle and Berkeley. 1,000 mi C Seattle Q9.6 At this point, from the infor- ke Sa t o 37 Salt Lake City Q ua Berkeley 5m i mation in Figure 9.6C, how specific can you now be as concerns the location of that earthquake? lt Lake City— Earthquakes 157 D. Earthquake scales of severity Mercalli and Richter scales The two most popular scales for expressing earthquake severity are those of Mercalli intensity and Richter magnitude. In 1902 the Italian scientist Giuseppe Mercalli devised his Mercalli intensity scale, which assigns a Roman numeral from I through XII to an earthquake based on eyewitness accounts of the effects of that earthquake (Table 9.1). So a Mercalli assessment of energy released by an earthquake is subjective, rather than quantitative. Also, bear in mind that Mercalli intensity diminishes with distance away from an epicenter, so it is only locally applicable. Table 9.1 is an abbreviated and condensed version of the Mercalli intensity scale. For a complete and modified Mercalli intensity scale, see the web site at the bottom of this page. Table 9.1 Abbreviated Mercalli intensity values and effects X–XII The study of seismograms experienced a memorable moment in 1935 when Charles Richter devised his Richter scale of earthquake magnitude, which he related to the energy released at an earthquake’s focus. The measure of ground motion on a seismogram that is used to access Richter magnitude is the amplitude of the S wave. Amplitude S wave P wave The Richter scale consists of numbers ranging from less than 0 (negative numbers) to 9.0 (Table 9.2). The scale is logarithmic in that the amplitude of the recorded S wave increases tenfold for each unit increase in Richter magnitude. For example, ground motion produced by a magnitude 5.0 quake is ten times larger than that produced by a magnitude 4.0 quake. Q9.8 How much greater is ground motion generated by a magnitude 4 quake than a magnitude 2 quake? Table 9.2 Total and major damage x.) III I–II Q9.7 The effect of value III in Table 9.1 is ‘Felt indoors.’ Why specify indoors? Why should eye witness accounts indoors differ from eye witness accounts outdoors? Hint: Consider the surroundings. 2.0 1 ton 4.6 tons 3.0 29 tons 3.5 73 tons 4.0 1,000 tons Small nuclear weapon 5,100 tons Average tornado 5.0 32,000 tons 5.5 80,000 tons Little Skull Mtn., Nev quake, 1992 . 6.0 1 million tons Double Spring Flat, Nev. quake, 1994 6.5 5 million tons Northridge, Calif. quake, 1994 7.0 32 million tons Largest thermonuclear weapon 160 million tons Landers, Calif. quake, 1992 1 billion tons San Francisco, Calif. quake, 1906 8.5 Usually detected only by instruments Large blast at a construction site 320 lbs 8.0 Felt indoors 30 lbs 1.5 7.5 VII–VIII Everybody runs outdoors; moderate to major damage VI–VII Felt by all; many frightened and run outdoors; minor to moderate damage IV–V Felt by most people; slight damage 1.0 4.5 Major damage p am Ex Breaking a rock on a lab table 2.5 IX–X e ud t nit len ag iva m qu ter h Te Ric TN -1.5 6 oz 5 billion tons Anchorage, Alaska quake, 1964 pro ap le ( Large quarry or mine blast Modified Mercalli intensity scale is at USGS site 158 Earthquakes Richter magnitude 1.0 Richter magnitude 2.0 An earthquake’s total energy As pointed out on the previous page, the Richter scale is logarithmic in that the amplitude of the S wave increases tenfold for each successive unit. You might view this as energy transmitted along a line from the focus of the earthquake to the seismograph. But how about the total energy transmitted in all directions? It turns out that the total energy increases by a factor of 30 for each successive unit on the Richter scale. To illustrate, Figure 9.7 shows three spheres whose volumes are proportionate to total energy released by three earthquakes with Richter magnitudes of 1.0, 2.0, and 3.0. In comparison, the total energy released by the 1906 San Francisco earthquake (Richter magnitude 7.8) would be represented by a sphere with a diameter of over 100 feet! It is difficult to equate Mercalli intensities with Richter magnitudes (Table 9.3) because Mercalli intensity depends in part on the nature of earth materials along the energy path. Weakly consolidated (‘soft’) rocks are more easily distorted by seismic energy than are well-consolidated (‘hard’) rocks. View it as an energy budget. An earthquake can spend its energy either by greater distortion over a lesser distance, or by lesser distortion over a greater distance. It’s like kicking the edge of a carpet with someone standing on it a couple of feet away versus kicking the end of a 30-ft board with some standing on it at its end. This is illustrated in a realworld example in Figure 9.8. Q9.9.Why aren’t the fields of Mercalli intensity values in Figure 9.8 bounded by perfect concentric circles (as in a target pattern), rather than in these spatter shapes? Figure 9.7 Three spheres whose volumes are proportionately equal to Richter magnitudes 1.0, 2.0, and 3.0. Richter magnitude 3.0 Table 9.3 Abbreviated Mercalli intensity values and effects Richter magnitude values X–XII Total and major damage 8 IX–X Major damage 7 VII–VIII 6 IV–V Everybody runs outdoors; moderate to major damage Felt by all; many frightened and run outdoors; minor to moderate damage Felt by most people; slight damage III Felt indoors 3 I–II Usually detected only by instruments 2 VI–VII 5 4 I–IV B.C. Alber ta Sask. V Was h. Mont. VI Ore. N. Dak. VII–X Idah o S. Dak. Cali f. 0 Wyo. 200 mi Utah Colo. Figure 9.8 Distribution of fields of Mercalli intensity values associated with the 1959 Madison River Canyon earthquake studied on page 156. Earthquakes 159 E. Determining the Richter magnitude of a distant earthquake 0 1 P wave arrival For any earthquake, the farther away from the seismograph station, the less the zigzag deflection produced on the seismogram (i.e., the less the earthquake is felt at that station). Even so, it is possible for a single station to assess the magnitude of a distant earthquake by using the nomogram in Figure 9.9. The procedure follows: 1 Amplitude = 22.5 mm 20 S wave arrival time minus P wave arrival time = 24 seconds 50 40 30 Step 1 Measure the difference in arrival times of the P and S waves (expressed in increments of seconds). 20 100 6 50 20 5 10 4 10 8 6 5 3 2 4 Step 2 Measure the amplitude (height from base line) of the S wave on the seismogram (expressed in millimeters). 2 0.5 1 0.2 1 2 Step 3 Lay a straightedge on the nomogram so as to intersect the values for arrival time difference and amplitude. Step 4 Read the magnitude directly from the Richter magnitude scale. 20 30 S wave arrival 0. S wave arrival minus P wave arrival (in sec.) 0 Richter magnitude Amplitude of S wave from base line on seismogram (in mm) Figure 9.9 Nomogram for solving for the Richter magnitude of a distant earthquake. The example is that of an earthquake producing a difference in arrival times of P and S waves of 24 seconds and an amplitude of S wave of 22.5 millimeters. Richter magnitude is 5.0. (Nomogram courtesy of the California Institute of Technology.) Q 9.10 Using the nomogram above, determine the Richter magnitude for the three earthquakes listed below (A, B, and C). When finished, transcribe your answers to an identical table on Answer Page 169. S arrival minus P arrival Amplitude of S wave (A) 8 seconds 20 millimeters (B) 8 seconds 0.2 millimeters (C) 6 seconds 10 millimeters Richter magnitude 160 Earthquakes Moment magnitude—the seismologists’ choice Seismologists have abandoned Richter magnitude in favor of moment magnitude (Mw) in an effort to better understand earth tremors—including those produced by human activities (e.g., nuclear explosions). Moment magnitude is proportional to the amount of displacement (‘slip’), multiplied by the area of rupture, multiplied by the strength of the particular earth materials. Table 9.4 Richter magnitude Moment magnitude Chile, 1960 8.3 9.5 Alaska, 1964 8.4 9.2 New Madrid, 1812 8.7 (est.) 8.1 (est.) Mexico City 1985 , 8.1 8.1 San Francisco, 1906 7.8 7.7 Loma Prieta, 1989 7.1 7.0 San Fernando, 1971 6.4 6.7 Northridge, 1994 6.4 6.7 Kobe, Japan, 1995 7.2 6.9 Earthquake There can be some ambiguity in communicating Richter values and moment values, because the two designations are similar in numerical value. Table 9.4 compares Richter and Mw values for large earthquakes that have occurred within the past two centuries. Q9.11 As indicated in Table 9.4, there appears to be an upper limit to Richter and moment magnitudes at around 9.5. Why is this? Why not at around 10.5? Hint: See the metaphor of elastic rebound in Figure 9.1 on the first page. The Northridge, California earthquake At 4:31 A.M. on Monday, January 17, 1994 there occurred the most disastrous earthquake in recorded history of the Los Angeles area. The Northridge earthquake, which measured 6.7 (Mw), resulted in a displacement of 11.5 ft.—only one-half the displacement of the 1906 San Francisco earthquake, but the Northridge quake produced some of the most severe upward ground motion ever recorded. Ground acceleration—the quantitative measure of ground motion that occurs during an earthquake—is expressed as a percent of gravity. (Think of ground acceleration as a ‘heave ho’ force.) Ground acceleration associated with the Northridge quake was 1.8 g (i.e., 180 percent of gravity) horizontally and 1.2 g (120 percent of gravity) vertically. At a value of 1.0 g vertical acceleration, objects not tied down are tossed into the air. In the case of the Northridge quake, ground acceleration destroyed buildings and bridges, and 61 people were killed. Another 9,000 people were injured, and the total damage was tabulated at $20 billion. A count of failed buildings produced an estimate of 3,000 deaths had the quake occurred during working hours, rather than before dawn. Q9.12 What sorts of things might have toppled onto children had they been in classrooms and cafeterias at the time of the Northridge earthquake? Earthquakes 161 Geology of the Northridge seismic region C n An A A dr L I ea F s The 1994 Northridge earthquake was produced by slippage along the Pico thrust—one of several thrust faults within the northern Los Angeles basin (Fig. 9.10). The 1971 San Fernando earthquake resulted from slippage along the San Fernando thrust, the epicenter of which is also shown in Figure 9.10B. (Simple line-traces of other thrust faults are shown in Figure 9.10B.) O ul R Fa N t I A ‘B Northridge ig Be nd ’ Los Angeles San Diego Q9.13 On the Answer Page sketch a cross-section along line X-Y in Figure 9.10B. Draw each of the two thrust faults as being inclined approximately 30 degrees from an imaginary horizontal plane. (See directions of inclination of the two thrust faults in the above caption.) Sa 1994 Pico thrust Y B X Figure 9.10 A Motion along the San Andreas Fault is lateral (arrows), but a kink in the trace of the San Andreas (aka the ‘Big Bend’) produces compression that results in numerous thrust faults. B Two thrust faults (the Pico and the San Fernando) are shown in detail, with conventional ‘teeth’ on the overriding block of each, indicating that the San Fernando thrust is inclined downward toward the northeast, and the Pico thrust is inclined downward toward the southwest. n An dr ea s 100 mi 100 km San Francisco Sa The San Andreas Fault has been the icon of California earthquakes since the San Francisco quake of 1906, but geologists are becoming increasingly aware of hazards associated with other faults related to the San Andreas. N 0 0 Fa 1971 San Fernando thrust Los Angeles ul t 162 Earthquakes F. Other earthquakes in the news , MARCH 26, 2002 COLUMBIA DAILY TRIBUNE Afghanistan earthquake kills 1,800 als say. 10,000 homeless, aid offici A powerful earthquake KABUL, Afghanistan (AP)—estern Pakistan, killing northw rocked Afghanistan and ring 2,000, Afghan officials about 1,800 people and inju fense Ministry said 600 said today. The Afghan Devillages still shaking from bodies were recovered from aftershocks. ir homes,” said Nigel “People were caught in thel in Afghanistan. U.S. . officia Fisher, a senior U.N lde n, Co lo., sai d it wa s Ge olo gic al Sur vey in Go 105 miles north of Kabul. magnitude 5.9 and centered COLUMBIA DA ILY TRIBUNE, Western Was declared disa hington ster area Estimates of d amage break $ MARCH 2, 20 2 billion mark 01 . SEATTLE (A Was hi ng to n P)—The scene left little do de cl ar at io n: w ou ld se cu re an em erge ubt western nc C crumbled road ra ck ed bu il di ng s, cr us he y di sa st er earthquake. s dominate the landscape d ca rs an d rocked by an Wit hi n ho ur s of G ov. G ar y federal aid, Pr L oc ke ’s re gi on a fe deesident George W. Bush re qu es t fo r declared the ra l di sa st er, low-interest lo ans, grants an cl ea ri ng th e w ay fo r to help rebuil d other assist da m ag e es ti md. The declaration came ance needed yest at es fr om th e climbed above m ag ni tu de 6. erday as $2 billion. 8 qu ak e “Earthquakes don’t kill people. Buildings kill people.” Q9.14 The 2002 Afghanistan earthquake measured 5.9 on the Richter scale and killed 1,800 people. The 2001 western Washington earthquake measured 6.8 on the Richter scale and killed only one person. Can you imagine why the huge difference in the numbers of deaths? Hint: It has to do with construction materials. Some of the past century’s strongest earthquakes, along with numbers of fatalities, are listed in Table 9.5. Q9.15 The number of fatalities is not always a measure of the size an earthquake. Other forces of nature can be set in motion by earthquakes. Can you name a few? Hint: One consequent disaster is especially common in mountainous terrains and played a role in all of the disasters listed in Table 9.5. Table 9.5 STRONGEST EARTHQUAKES Some of the past century’ strongest s earthquakes, their locations, Richter magnitudes, and numbers of fatalities • Dec. 16, 1920, China, 8.6, 100,000 • Aug. 16, 1920, Chile, 8.6, 20,000 • May 22, 1927, China, 8.3, 200,000 • Sept. 1, 1923, Japan, 8.3, 100,000 • July 28, 1976, China, 8.0, 242,000 The ShakeMap project Q9.16 What would be an obvious application of an After Northridge, USGS launched the development of project ShakeMap—the real-time generation of maps showing location, severity, and extent of ground shaking within seconds after the signal of an earthquake. This information goes automatically to the program’s Web site and to emergency managers. early warning system, say, during a work day? Hint: See the bold assertion at the top of the left column on this page. Hint: Think of children. When an earthquake occurs 50 miles from downtown Los Angeles, with waves traveling at two miles per second, the network has 25 seconds to receive the data, analyze it, and broadcast it as an early warning for Los Angeles residents. Eyewitness accounts can be more definitive than seismology in directing emergency crews to high-priority earthquake sites. USGS now has a Web site in place (see the URL below) that allows seismologists to compile a nearly instant online map of an earthquake’s intensity. The Web site received more than 17,000 reports after a quake rattled northeastern Alabama on April 29, 2003. “Did you feel it?” A questionnaire is at Earthquakes 163 G. Determining the location of an earthquake from seismograms The New Madrid area of the midMississippi River Valley is one of the most notable seismic regions in North America. Although not measured with modern instruments, a series of three earthquakes near New Madrid, Missouri, in 1811–1812 are believed by some to have been the most intense ever to have occurred in North Amer- ica in historical time. The 1811–1812 Missouri earthquakes rang church bells in New England and Virginia. Approximately 200 shocks are recorded every year in the New Madrid area. Most are detected only with seismographs, but the immediate area experiences one or two shocks every 18 Ill. Mo. months that are sufficiently strong to crack plaster in buildings. You are asked to plot on the map in Figure 9.11 (page 164) the location of a New Madrid area earthquake using the method developed on page 156. A pencil compass is essential for accurately plotting the epicenter. Ind. Ky. Tenn. Ark. Miss. Ala. 0 200 400 mi New Madrid seismic region, schematically showing the reach of its effects Real-time earthquake information is at 164 Earthquakes Locating a New Madrid earthquake Information courtesy of Professor Brian J. Mitchell, Saint Louis University. Figure 9.11 is a map of the New Madrid seismic area showing three of the seismograph stations in the region: 91.0 Powhatan, Arkansas (POW); Lennox, Tennessee (LTN); and Rosebud, Illinois (GOIL). 90.0 89.0 88.0 39.0 39.0 Illinois Ind. 38.0 Kentucky 37.0 38.0 Missouri GOIL 37.0 36.0 POW Arkansas 91.0 0 90.0 36.0 Tennessee LTN 50 89.0 100 150 km 88.0 Figure 9.11 Map of the New Madrid seismic area showing three of the many seismograph stations in the region. Degrees north latitude and degrees west longitude are shown along the margins. Subdivisions of degrees are in tenths of a degree rather than in minutes of an angle. On facing-page 165 worksheet there are three seismograms that record a Richter 3.0 earthquake that occurred in the S.E. Missouri region around 3:46 A.M. on June 19, 1987. Step 2 Use the graph on the worksheet on facing page 165 to solve for the distance between the earthquake and each of the three stations. Record values on the worksheet. Q9.17 Where is the location of that June 19 quake Step 3 Using the kilometer scale in Figure 9.11, draw a ray in any direction from each station in Figure 9.11 equal to the distance between the quake and the station. (to the nearest tenth of a degree latitude and longitude)? To answer this question, do the following: Step 1 Determine the arrival times of P and S waves, solve for their difference, and record on the worksheet. Step 4 With a pencil compass, draw a circle around each station, using the ray as its radius. The intersection of the three circles marks the location of the earthquake. Earthquakes 165 worksheet 03:46:40 03:47:00 03:47:20 03:47:40 03:47:00 03:47:20 03:47:40 LTN GOIL POW 03:46:40 hours:minutes:seconds (Each of the smallest increments is one second.) 0 0 Difference in arrival times of P & S waves (in seconds) 15 5 10 20 Distance from earthquake (in kilometers) 12.8 sec. An example solution 50 100 104 km 150 P arrival time S arrival time (hours:minutes:seconds.tenths of seconds) LTN GOIL POW Note: This is a graph of distance from earthquake versus difference in arrival times of P and S waves. This graph differs from that in Figure 9.5 on page 155, which is a graph of distance versus separate travel times of P and S waves. Difference in P & S arrivals (seconds.tenths of seconds) Distance in kilometers 166 Earthquakes H. The Sumatra tsunami Tsunami is a Japanese word meaning harbor wave. Perhaps the name of this devastating event derives from the facts that (a) water moving onshore tends to pile-up within harbors (i.e., the ‘bottleneck effect’), and (b) there is a greater loss of life and property within harbors. The mechanics of a tsunami are much like those of winddriven waves (Fig. 9.12), but the two kinds of waves differ greatly in their length, height, and speed in the open sea. 30° Hi ma la ya n T hrust F ault BANGLADESH BANGLADESH 20° BURMA INDIA THAILAND Bay of Bengal Burm ese 10° SRI LANKA Oc ra an Plat e at Indi MALAYSIA m Indian te Su 0° Epicenter Pla INDONESIA ea n 10° Figure 9.12 As a wave approaches shore—be it wind-driven or tsunami—drag in the shallow water causes wave length to diminish and wave height to increase. The bulging wave gathers water from both its offshore side and its shoreward side, so the initial effect of a tsunami wave is the withdrawal of water from the coast. Q9.18 The initial withdrawal of water illustrated in Figure 9.12 lured many people to their deaths. What do you suppose lured them to the exposed sea floor? The causes of tsunamis—Tsunamis are sea waves produced by an abrupt motion of water caused within or near an ocean by earthquakes, volcanic eruptions, landslides, meteor impacts, and nuclear detonations. The disturbance can be viewed as a shock wave that, in the open sea, can produce surface waves that travel at speeds of hundreds of miles per hour with wave lengths measured in hundreds of miles. Curiously, wave heights at sea are on the order of only a few feet, so little energy is spent on overcoming gravity. A passing tsunami is hardly noticed by cruise-ship passengers. 70° 80° 90° 100 110° Figure 9.13 The Indian plate has been creeping northeastward under the Burmese plate at an average rate of 5 centimeters per year for millennia. After National Earthquake Information Center (NEIC) in Science, v. 308, 5/20/05. Figure 9.14 A Creeping of the Indian plate bends downward the edge of the Burmese plate. B Eventual rupture at the plate boundary sends the Burmese plate lurching upward, setting in motion tsunami waves across the Bay of Bengal and the Indian Ocean beyond. SE ME URATE B L P A N DIA PLA TE IN The Sumatra tsunami—On December 26, 2004, near the northwest coast of Sumatra, there occurred the largest earthquake in the global instrumental record of the past 40 years: Moment magnitude 9.3 and Richter magnitude 9.0. The Sumatra earthquake signaled abrupt faulting along the Indian plate-Burmese plate boundary (Fig. 9.13). The Indian plate has been creeping northeastward under the Burmese plate at an average rate of a few centimeters per year, bending downward the edge of the Burmese plate (Fig. 9.14 A). On that fateful December 26th, the Burmese plate lurched upward 50–60 feet along some 1,000 miles of its length (Fig. 9.14B), sending trillions of tons of water coursing 3,000 miles westward as far as the coast of Africa where it added to the hundreds of thousands of deaths. B Q9.19 What is the term for the process of eventual rupture at the plate boundary? Hint: Recall that process as it was applied to faults on the first page of this exercise. Scientific Background on the Sumatra Earthquake and Tsunami is at... Earthquakes 167 Run-up—Tsunami run-up along a coast is the height of flooding, technically the vertical distance between (a) the maximum height reached by tsunami water on land and (b) average sea-level at that place. Variable #2 in the column at the left explains an apparent anomaly in the distribution of deaths in coastal regions shown on the map in Figure 9.15. There follows a ‘rule’ that applies to variable #2: The magnitude of run-up at a coast depends on a number of variables, including, in the case of earthquakes: The rule: The deeper the water along the tsunami’s pathway, the less energy expended by the shock wave’s ‘feeling’ the sea floor, so the greater the energy arriving at a coast, the higher the run-up, and the greater the destruction and loss of life. And vice versa. (1) The extent of crustal displacement (signaled by the earthquake)—i.e., its magnitude, depth, orientation, and length. Q9.20 One of the curious things about the loss of life (2) The oceanic path taken by the shock wave—specifically the depth of water and the ruggedness of the sea floor. in regions surrounding the Bay of Bengal is that some 38,195 lives were lost in Sri Lanka, whereas only 2 lives were lost in Bangladesh. How could this be? It certainly couldn’t be the difference in distance. Hint: To answer this question, you should first contour the map in Figure 9.20 on the Answer Page and then follow ‘the rule.’ (3) The configuration of the coast line, both (a) in map view (i.e., the configuration of bays and peninsulas) and (b) in vertical profile (i.e., the configuration of hills and valleys). Figure 9.15 This map of the Bay of Bengal shows depths in meters. (Map derived from Chart I , Bottom Topography of the Oceans, in The Oceans, by Sverdrup, Johnson, and Fleming, 1942.) Ga iver nges R BANGLADESH 2 -500 -800 BURMA 90 -1,200 INDIA 10,744 -2,100 -2,000 -2,200 -600 -2,800 -3,100 -2,500 3 -3,100 -2,350 -1,100 -2,300 -3,500 Bay of Bengal -2,650 -2,400 -1,500 SRI LANKA -4,300 -4,500 INDIA A region with early 10,744 number of deaths Epicenter -5,100 0 MALAYSIA 74 -800 -3,900 38,195 -2,800 Water depth (in meters) 3 Contour interval: 1,000 meters (this example: -3,000 m) THAILAND 4,510 100 200 300 400 500 miles Su m atr a INDONESIA 173,981 168 Earthquakes Early warning systems TSUNAMI HAZARD ZONE IN CASE OF EARTHQUAKE, GO TO HIGH GROUND OR INLAND Q9.21 Given the velocity of 500 miles per hour, approximately how long did it take for the Sumatra tsunami generated at the epicenter to reach the eastern shore of Sri Lanka? Hint: Look back at Figure 9.15 and apply the graphic scale. Inasmuch as most tsunamis are generated by earthquakes, there is usually time—from 20 minutes to two hours—for many people to climb above the likely limits of run-up. Had there been an early warning system for tsunamis in the Indian Ocean in December 2004, untold thousands of lives would have been saved. Technology—Not all oceanic earthquakes produce tsunamis, and not all tsunamis are produced by earthquakes. Inasmuch as seismic data alone can’t predict tsunamis, geologists have relied on an array of gauges anchored near shore to measure wave heights around the Pacific Rim. Beginning in 1996, these water-level gauges have been supplemented by deepocean sensors, which measure the pressure of passing waves and transmit information to networking satellites (Fig. 9.16). America and Japan partner in a system of seabed pressuredetectors and share data with their Pacific neighbors. This system of seven detectors, which is managed in Hawaii, cost $18 million in research and development. A similar system might now be installed for $2 million. A U.N. initiative is underway to install this technology in the Indian Ocean. Are we Americans safe? In addition to our Northwest’s subduction-plate geology, and the precarious setting of Hawaii, there are other dangers. One example: A possible landslide on the western side of the island of La Palma in the Canary Islands. It seems that a huge crack in Cumbre Vieja Volcano was opened by its 1949 eruption, thereby increasing the possibility of a landslide that could send a hundred-cubic-mile chunk of rock sliding into the Atlantic at 200 miles per hour. The height of the tsunami generated by such a submarine landslide has been forecast to be as much as 80 feet along our East Coast. Q9.22 (Ref: Figure 9.17) Given the location and time of Buoy relay to satellite an earthquake, and the locations of six sea floor sensors, what would be the greatest distance from which the time of arrival of the tsunami at Target Coast could be forecast—500, 800, 1,000, 1,200, or 1,500 miles? Target Coast Epicenter Land of Moo Wire relay to buoy Pressure sensor Figure 9.16 A station within a system of pressure sensors consists of (a) a sea floor sensor that receives pressure data, (b) a device that relays data to a surface buoy, which, in turn, relays data to a satellite, and (c) a management center that receives data from the satellite, processes that data, and transmits information to coastal warning facilities. Wine Dark Sea Sea floor sensor 0 500 miles Figure 9.17 Locations of the epicenter of an earthquake and an array of five stations within a system of pressure sensors. Earthquakes 169 (Student’s name) (Lab instructor’s name) (Day) (Hour) ANSWER PAGE 9.1 9.2 9.3 9.12 9.4 9.13 San Andreas fault X Pico thrust 9.7 (Northridge) 9.6 San Fernando thrust Note: Add arrows to the hanging walls of Pico and San Fernando thrusts to indicate the direction of ground motion during an earthquake. 9.5 9.8 9.14 9.9 9.11 9.10 Amplitude S arrival minus P arrival (A) 8 seconds 0.2 millimeters (C) 6 seconds 9.15 20 millimeters (B) 8 seconds Magnitude 10 millimeters Q Partial solution to 9.2 (page 155) : Note: We must use the same temporal unit—hour—in expressing both rate (i.e., speed) and time. So, the 30- minute difference in arrival times must be expressed as 1/2 (hour), inasmuch as rate is expressed in miles per hour. 9.16 Step 1: D [distance] = r [rate] t [time], so . . . Step 2: D = 50 t [for faster vehicle], and . . . Step 3: D = 40 (t + 1/2) [for slower vehicle] Step 4: D = D [they drove the same distance], so . . . Step 5: 50 t = 40 (t + 1/2) Solve for t [time], plug it into Step 2, and solve for D. Y 170 Earthquakes 9.17 latitude: longitude: 9.18 9.21 9.19 9.22 9.20 Question 9.20 figure Ga iver nges R BANGLADESH 2 -500 -800 BURMA 90 -1,200 INDIA 10,744 -2,100 -2,000 -2,200 -600 -2,800 -3,100 -2,500 3 -3,100 -2,350 -1,100 -2,300 -3,500 Bay of Bengal -2,650 -2,400 -1,500 SRI LANKA -4,300 -4,500 INDIA A region with early 10,744 number of deaths Epicenter -5,100 0 MALAYSIA 74 -800 -3,900 38,195 -2,800 Water depth (in meters) 3 Contour interval: 1,000 meters (this example: -3,000 m) THAILAND 4,510 100 200 300 400 500 miles Su m atr a INDONESIA 173,981 ...
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Это был тот самый парень, за которым он гнался от автобусной остановки. Беккер мрачно оглядел море красно-бело-синих причесок. - Что у них с волосами? - превозмогая боль, спросил он, показывая рукой на остальных пассажиров.  - Они все… - Красно-бело-синие? - подсказал парень.

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